Book 3


Shotcrete is a special application of concrete that requires the concrete mixture to be applied to a surface at a sufficient velocity in order to obtain compaction. Shotcrete is normally used for building and repairing vertical and overhead structures. Read Book 3 / Unit 5  Review “Words You Should Know”  Watch the video below and

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Pervious Concrete

Pervious concrete has actually been in use for more than 150 years, but since the 1970’s this reputation of this paving process has gained rapidly in popularity. Because of its ability to treat, filter, control and partially contain stormwater runoff, pervious concrete is proving an ecologically friendly alternative to asphalt, impervious concrete and other paving

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Super Flat Floors

Although flat floors have always been the goal of cement masons, concrete slabs have never been truly flat. For many years this was not a problem because small variations in floor surface were seldom noticed. However, with the advent of VNA (Very Narrow Aisle) technology in warehouses this began to change. VNA technology was an

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Trowel Machine Operations

Marvin Whiteman Sr., invented the first power trowel in 1939.  Since that time power floats and trowels have been widely used to finish large areas of concrete flatwork. There are many advantages to power troweling. While a cement mason using hand tools can finish approximately 300 to 600 square feet a day, a power trowel

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Power Screed Operations

Cement masons use screeds to bring concrete to finish level, thus, bringing the concrete to grade level. The screeding process creates a slab with an essential “plane” surface. Screed tools may be as simple as a piece of wood or as a complex as a selfpropelled high production machine. Cement masons require a variety of

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Underlayments / Overlayments

When concrete floors do not meet the specifications for their intended use, underlayment or overlayment materials can be very effective solutions.  The ability of the cement mason to use the correct materials and application procedures to bring these floors into tolerance for their intended use is critical.  In this unit, you will learn how to prepare a substrate, set up a

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Exposed Aggregate Finishes

Cement masons expose aggregate to create decorative effects on a variety of concrete surfaces, including walls, driveways and walkways. The concept is simple: after pouring the concrete, cement masons remove some portion of the surface mortar to reveal the underlying aggregate. The amount of mortar removed and the amount of aggregate that is exposed will vary with the specifications and the

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Decorative Sawcutting

Both scoring and sawcutting can be used to create decorative effects that add depth and texture to concrete surfaces such as floors, patios and driveways. On hardened concrete, cement masons can sawcut lines that are straight, diagonal or circular.  Often these designs created by sawcutting are then stained with a variety of colors or etched

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Stenciling and Imprinting

Concrete is a versatile material that can be used in many different applications. However, in its natural gray state, concrete can appear plain. Fortunately, the versatility of concrete also allows the use of aggregates, tools, and additives to change the color and texture of the finished surface. Two methods that are especially effective in changing

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